The great distinguishing feature of this climatic region is the seasonal character of its rainfall. (a) Shows the percentage of normal rainfall received over Eastern Africa in October–December 2019 from TAMSATv3 (mean based on 1985–2019). The rainiest areas are the Lake Victoria basin, the mountains, and the coastal islands, which receive more than 59 inches … Plant life is influenced by the amount of rainfall. Nutrients in the top layers of the soil are washed away after torrential rain, on the other side nothing can grow if it rains too little. Predicting shifts in rainfall patterns in South Africa is much less certain. The box in (a) shows East Africa region of study, and the averaging region for time series in (c) and (d), where dotted lines show the medians (med), lower quartiles (LQ) and upper quartiles (UQ) calculated using data within the range of years listed in the figure legends. Instead of spring, summer, fall, and winter, most countries south of the Sahara Desert have dry and rainy seasons. The rainfall can be distributed across most of the year, or in two rainy seasons with short drier periods between the rains. In summer, moist equatorial air masses originating over the Atlantic Ocean bring annual monsoon rains (Nicholson, 2013). In East Africa Rodhe and Virji (1976)used agraphical technique inexamining the nature of trend of annual rainfall of 35 stations concentrated mainly i~~Kenya and northern Tanzania. Summer rainfall in one of the world's most drought-prone regions can now be predicted months or years in advance, climate scientists at the Met Office and the University of Exeter say. First, extreme events are rare by definition, hence difficult to record. Rising greenhouse gases have boosted rainfall in the Sahel region of Africa, easing droughts that killed 100,000 people in the 1970s and 1980s, in … These quantify the strength of seasonality, and the wet-season start- and end-dates, length, total rainfall amount, number of rain days and rainfall intensity. Parts of eastern Ethiopia and Somalia near the Indian Ocean have a desert climate. The coldest regions of Africa lie in the eastern highlands and southern Africa. Rising temperatures, drought and erratic rainfall are making growing coffee harder. The Southern region of Africa lies in the southernmost part of the continent, as the name implies. The winter months are much rainier than the summer months in Cape Town. The grassland classification is restricted to regions with 10 percent or less woody plant cover. Some attribute this decline to anthropogenic forcing, whereas others maintain that it is a feature of internal climate variability. Usually between 30 000 and 50 000 litres. The temperature here averages 16.9 °C | 62.4 °F. This is an improvement from the previous season, where less rainfall resulted in adverse impacts on agriculture, water resources and hydropower generation in most of the region. around Malindi, Mombasa, Tanga, Dar es Salaam, Kilwa etc. It is a region of diverse people and cultures. Precipitation up to 4000 mm a year is no exception. New Delhi: Scientists have found that aerosols like black carbon and dust, which makes the Indo-Gangetic Plain one of the most polluted regions of the world, have led to increased incidents of high rainfall events in the foothills of the Himalayan Region, according to an official statement. Warm all year, distint rainy or dry seasons, at least 20 inches of rain during the summer. Cape Town climate summary The Cape Town lies on 27m above sea level In Cape Town, the climate is warm and temperate. the N.E & S.E monsoons tend to bring in heavy rainfall. The humid subtropical marine climate is restricted to the southeast coast of Africa. As in the desert and semiarid climatic zones, mean monthly temperatures show less variation than daily temperatures. Regions 3 and 4 show a single maximum in the boreal summer and autumn. With the exception of these, the continent is affected both by a continental tropical air mass to the north and by maritime tropical and maritime equatorial air masses to the south. During the period of high sun, the maritime air masses produce up to six months of rainfall, the length of the rainy season depending on nearness to the Equator. A fourth factor consists of the cool ocean currents, which chill the winds that blow over them and thereby influence the climate of the neighbouring shores. The ITCZ (also known as the heat Equator) moves between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn depending on the season. The West Africa Sahel region is a semi-arid area that runs from the Atlantic Ocean eastward to Chad, separating the Sahara Desert to the north and the Sudanian Savana to the south. The climate across West Africa varies from arid to tropical monsoon conditions. tips of Africa. The coldest regions of Africa lie in the eastern highlands and southern Africa. In South Africa, south of KwaZulu-Natal, the winter rainfall is more pronounced, and the temperatures are a little lower than in the north. Yet, these regions are densely inhabited and are net exporters of high-quality agricultural products. Although some high-level similarities are evident, digging into the specifics of certain regions and countries shows that Africa comprises a range of distinct investment destinations, each with its own attractions, flaws, cultural differences and business practices. The regional rainfall pattern for the 2019/20 agricultural season is encouraging, as parts of southern Africa are expected to receive adequate rainfall in the first half of the season. High-resolution rainfall data are often required as input into continuous simulation hydrological models and other hydrological studies. South of the Equator, at yet greater distance from the convergence zone, the maritime air masses are less-heated, thick, and stable, and they bring hardly any rainfall, except over some of the East African highlands. Because areas with an equatorial climate are constantly covered by warm maritime air masses, variations in their monthly and daily temperatures are less pronounced than in the tropical wet-and-dry regions. Near the equator there are two very wet seasons, as the sun passes overhead in spring and fall. Since the coastal regions are at a lower altitude, high temperatures are experienced. The highest temperatures of the continent are measured in the desert regions of the Sahara, where daytime temperatures reach up to 50°C.  Nights can be cool and frosty, even during the summer. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Droughts are becoming more widespread across the Sahel and eastern Africa. OND rainfall across East Africa in 2019. Thus, at Port Elizabeth there are six months when temperatures are below 62 °F (17 °C), while at Durban mean monthly temperatures do not fall below 64 °F (18 °C). For that reason, this formulation is conventionally used in studies of interannual variability of African rainfall. In regions of high or complex topography such as the Ethiopian Highlands, downscaled projections indicate likely increases in rainfall and extreme rainfall by the end of the 21st century. As the other equatorial climate in this region, this region has no dry season but has a well-developed double maximum rainfall in May and October. In the desert regions of the Sahara, Namib and Kalahari rainfall often drops to under a hundred cm a year. The rainforests consist of various layers of vegetation, from shrubs and ferns on the ground to trees that grow up to a height of 50 metres. The humid subtropical marine climate is restricted to the southeast coast of Africa. In the four equatorial regions rainfall tends to peaks in the boreal spring and autumn. Climate Information Tool, Monthly Data This tool provides data for any location in Africa, even if no weather station is available. In consequence, the influence of the sea extends farther inland in Southern Africa. We focus on the April rainfall, a month of high seasonal rainfall over west and east tropical Africa (e.g., Washington et al. There is no rainfall on the northern side of the convergence zone, since the region is completely under the dry continental tropical air mass originating over the Sahara. South Africa experiences a high degree of sunshine with rainfall about half of the global average, increasing from west to east, and with semi-desert regions in the north-west. The stability of these maritime air masses is induced by their passing over the cool body of water offshore. Sahel rainfall is dynamically linked to the global Hadley cell and to the regional monsoon circulation. Stations very close to the Benguela coast tend … Of these, the least important are the continental polar air masses, which may occasionally bring intense cold to northern Egypt in December and January, and the maritime polar air masses, which are associated with rain-bearing depressions over the northern and southern extremities of the continent during the winter. These northern and southern air masses meet at the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). For the multi-region sector average R j, the first step is an arithmetic average of the standardized departures from all I stations within the sector that are available for the season or year in question. Thorn woodland, grassland, and semidesert vegetation. Although not indigenous to Africa, as with the potato in Ireland, maize has become a staple for many smallholder farmers, and is now favoured over more traditional crops such as sorghum and millet. Because they'll use massive, crowdsourced computing power from World Community Grid, they'll be able run simulations at a much higher resolution—exactly what's needed for localized rainstorms. Urban areas, for example, have climates that often differ in many respects from those of the surrounding countryside. Fifth, because of the extensive plateau surfaces of the continent and the absence of high and long mountain ranges comparable to, for example, the Andes in South America or the Himalayas in Asia, climatic zones in Africa tend to shade into one another, rather than change abruptly from place to place. While these factors help to account for the broad climatic patterns of the African continent, there are nevertheless numerous local variations to be found from place to place within the same climatic zone. Rising greenhouse gases have boosted rainfall in the Sahel region of Africa, easing droughts that killed 100,000 people in the 1970s and 1980s, in a rare positive effect of climate … Climate is a long-term weather pattern, the sum of features such as temperature, rainfall, and wind. Tropical rainforests extend to the north and south of the equator. Also shown in panel b are the … East Africa, consisting of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania, straddles the equator. In Africa: Highveld grassland. The recent decline in Horn of Africa rainfall during the March–May “long rains” season has fomented drought and famine, threatening food security in an already vulnerable region. In South Africa, the largest highland area is the Highveld region, more than 1 000 m in altitude, bordered by the Drakensberg, reaching more than 3 000 m. The mountain ranges in the Cape region also belong to this ecological zone. The Llanos of Columbia is characterized by mean annual rainfall of 200cm-400cm (near Andes Mountain), mean annual temperature of 22°C, and maximum temperature of 32°C. The Sahara is moving southward and more and more areas are threatened by deforestation. The hot desert region consists of the Sahara and Kalahari deserts, which are always under the influence of dry continental tropical air masses, and the northern Kenya–Somali desert, the aridity of which is principally caused by the stable nature of the maritime air masses that pass over it throughout the year. The tropical wet-and-dry region is often called the savanna climatic region; this implies, incorrectly, that all areas with savanna vegetation have this type of climate. During this time heavy rain falls every day in the afternoon. The south-western parts of RSA, Western Cape. Humidity is always high, making life in this region very unpleasant. The Indo-Gangetic Plains located South and upwind of the Himalayan foothills. Extreme rainfall in West Africa: A regional modeling ... rainfall extremes in order to provide regional maps of high quantiles of the distributions (typically, 20 to 100 year or higher return period values), thus allowing to estimate these quantiles at nonobserved sites. The climate is basically influenced by the seasonal winds known as the monsoon winds. The site interpolates data using weather stations that are within close proximity to your inquiry. Humidity is always high, making life in this region very unpleasant. The convergence zone moves southward, dipping into Southern Africa. We used rainfall and temperature records between 1987 and 2016 from 46 weather stations across South Africa to calculate annual rainfall seasonality characteristics using two methods. Region 1, the easternmost region, has more rainfall in the boreal spring, similar to eastern equatorial Africa. The forms of non-randomness which are investigated include linear trends, persistence and quasi-periodic fluctuations. North of the equator most rain falls from April to September, south of the equator the rainy season is from October to March. Other mountains with high rainfall include the Outeniqua Mountain, mountains of the South-western Cape and the Winterberg and Amatola Mountains, in the central parts of the Eastern Cape. In addition to aridity, the desert climate is characterized by high mean monthly temperatures; the diurnal (daily) temperature range is, however, greater than the annual range of the mean monthly temperature. Countries in this region comprise of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Swaziland, Namibia, Mozambique, Malawi, Lesotho, Botswana, and Angola. Immediately south of the convergence zone, rainfall is heavy because of the unstable nature of maritime tropical air over a heated land surface. Clear blue skies are characteristic. We evaluated the combined aspects of anomalous high rainfall and concurrent soil saturation in a RVF forecast model for South Africa, using accurate temporal and spatial records of the 2008–2011 epidemics to derive risk maps (Directorate of Animal Health, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, pers. Climates of Africa - "Low" and "High" Africa. In the northern and southern extremities of the continent, there is a dry summer subtropical, or Mediterranean, type of climate. Average annual rainfall exceeds 200cm to 250cm. While the Western Cape has a Mediterranean climate with winter rainfall, most of the country experiences summer rain. Stormwater tanks are also required in built-up areas to slow the volume of water entering the drainage system during a high rainfall event. According to Köppen and Geiger, this climate is classified as Csb. There is high average temperatures and humidity throughout the year. Problem. Temperatures in South Africa tend to be lower than in other countries at similar latitudes – such as Australia – mainly because of its greater elevation above sea level. At this season the whole of northern Africa (except the Atlas Mountains) is under the dry continental tropical air mass, while Southern Africa receives rainfall except in the Cape region and on the southwest coast, where the maritime air mass remains stable offshore over the cool Benguela Current. Tropical Savanna - Tropical. Rainfall influences Africa’s agriculture. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. events; increasing aridity; and changes in rainfall—with a particularly pronounced decline in southern Africa and an increase in East Africa. 1.1 General overview The climate across southern Africa … The summer rainfall over the JJAS region is negatively correlated with ENSO. Based on current forecast global climate conditions, the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) predicts below- average rainfall … This is the area of massive uplift over Africa and very high rainfall figures Finally, the high mountains have climatic zones of their own that vary with altitude. Interactive Grammar and Vocabulary Exercises, East Africa hit by severest drought in 60 years. These seasonal winds affect the coastal areas of E.Africa i.e. Climate is shaped by the interaction of several interrelated factors; the most significant are altitude (topography) and rainfall. Tropical Savanna - Tropical. TROPICAL WET. In a few places—for example, on the coast of Mauritania and Senegal—there is also a little rainfall in the period of low sun. It is therefore susceptible to forcings from remote oceans and regional land alike. 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