45° work angle with a 5° to 10° drag travel angle. Travel and Work Angle: In a perpendicular position, the travel angle is the angle that is relative to the gun. The proper welding gun or work angle, travel angle and MIG welding technique depends on the thickness of the base metal and the welding position. It is recommended that the welding torch be held essentially perpendicular to the work-piece, with the work angle at 90° from the horizontal and only a slight travel angle of 0° to 5°. Work angle is the angle from the horizontal measured at right angles to the direction of welding (fig, 7-15). Naturally, the techniques are somewhat different because of the equipment involved is different. Flat Position Narrow Bead Weld To increase the depth of fusion, either increase the angle between the tip and the plate surface, or decrease the welding speed. Also, don't overweld or make a weld that is larger than necessary for the sake of joint strength—this may lead to burn-through. Notice that when the voltage is too high, the bead is wide and flat. The pool of molten slag is wide, tall and bubbly, and shouldn't be mistaken for the weld pool! In MIG/flux cored, the machines provides Constant Voltage (CV), so the welder usually only sets the current. The travel angle is that angle which is defined when the gun is in a perpendicular position within the joint plane. In the diagram on the right, the travel angle shows a 5-10 degree tilt along the joint. In fact, you can make things worse if you don't take the time to do your fit-up correctly. The second angle used in welding is the travel angle. The flame will be pointed in the welding direction. But if it crosses 20 degrees, it may result in weak penetration and instability of the arc. Correcting the problem is relatively simple: reduce the welding current, decrease the welding arc voltage and adjust your MIG gun angle toward the joint. Travel Angle: the degree of the travel angle, whether a push or drag travel angle, affects how much of the arc force is directed down into the base plate. Held farther away, the electrode produces less heat and more spatter. Travel angle is defined as the angle relative to the gun in a perpendicular position. While some stick electrodes are designed to penetrate through rust and millscale, those impurities can still cause problems. Beginner welders tend to move the rod too quickly, especially those who are transitioning to arc welding from another welding process. M is for manipulation of electrode. Travel Speed In most cases, weld penetration into a base material is increased when the travel speed of a weld is increased, and vice versa. If you have any website suggestions or concerns, email welder [at] thecityedition [dot] com. There shouldn't be any burrs, gaps or evenness. The most common travel angle is called a drag angle in which the electrode points in a direction opposite that of the arc travel. a. Argon and Oxygen b. A travel angle of 0° to 10° (i.e., the electrode perpendicular or mostly perpendicular to the plate) will result in more weld penetration. Where access to the reverse side of the joint is available, the condition of the penetration bead is less important as the root bead can be ground to sound metal and a sealing pass deposited. Cleaning your weld edges in advance is also important. This discontinuity weakens the toe of the weld, increasing the chances of cracking. This process aids in relieving built-up stresses and preventing surface cracking in the joint area; however, peening should be done with care because excess hammering can work harden and increase stresses in the weld. Travel angle is the angle in the direction of welding and may vary from 5 to 30 degrees, depending on the welder's choice and conditions (fig. In a wirefeed operation (i.e. Pull b. Held close to the work plates, the current and heat in the weld remains high. Going beyond 25 degrees increases spatter decreases arc stability and leads to less penetration. For welding vertical up, use a push or forehand technique and tilt the top of the electrode 0 to 15 degrees away from the direction of travel. Hold the electrode perpendicular to the joint, and then tilt the top in the direction of travel approximately 5 to 15 degrees. Move the arc backward over the crater, and then move forward again and continue the weld. Travel Speed Faults. The angle is measured in the plane containing the weld axis and the electrode axis. Achieving tie-in at the toes is paramount, but it's also important to control penetration and heat. Second pass 70° from the bottom plate and to posit the weld along the bottom toe of the root pass. What working angles are required for each pass of a multi-passive fillet T-joint weld in horizontal position? The torch is held at approximately a 45 degree angle from the vertical in the direction of welding, as shown in figure 11-4. With a fillet (tee) weld, hold the rod or wire (regardless of weld process) at a 45° angle between the two pieces of metal. This is the relationship between the torch and line of travel. 2. In most conditions, this will be between 5 and 15 degrees. Also, when the rate of voltage is too low, the weld bead sits on top of the base metal rather than penetrating into it. When welding on 10- to 18-gauge sheet steel, the fastest travel speeds are obtained with the work positioned at 45 to 75 degrees downhill. And while low-carbon steel is much easier to work with than other metals, you should still adopt the habit of cleaning or grinding the areas you plan to weld. Normal welding conditions in all positions call for a travel angle of 5 to 15 degrees. Profiles and sections of welds with various faults are compared with good welds on this page. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -. See Weld Defects for more on this subject. Alternating current b. If the angle reaches 20-25 degrees it’s likely to reduce the penetration, increase the level of spatter and may even interfere with the stability of the arc. What is the work angle and travel angle for Lap Joints in the Flat Position when welding a multi-pass? As you learn more about the chemical and mechanical properties of different metals and alloys, you may decide to include a pre or post heat treatment or your work pieces as part of the welding operation. When you push, the tilt is away from the puddle, which limits penetration and heat going into the base metal. When you drag your torch or electrode, the tilt is directed towards the puddle, which helps with penetration and achieving a thick bead. In order to see the joint and puddle, the welder may tip the rod up to 10 degrees in the direction of travel, or sometimes against the direction of travel. The basics of a steady motion are the hotter the setting in most cases the better the weld. You should also tack your plates and use clamps as needed to prevent the joint from closing up in advance of the weld, or other distortion caused by heat. Work angle is especially important in multiple-pass fillet welding. Travel speed is the rate at which the electrode travels along a weld seam. It is what most robots use to weld and it can produce a perfect weld in any position. The maximum speed of welding depends on the skill of the operator, the position of the weld, the type of electrode, and the required joint penetration. Normally it should be around 5 to 15 degrees. In order to see the joint and puddle, the welder may tip the rod up to 10 degrees in the direction of travel, or sometimes against the direction of travel. (Think of this as the front view of the work plates.) 45 degree work, 30 degree travel, lay root pass using slight whipping motion, use weave motion on … © Copyright Integrated Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. When you are welding a joint that has the same thickness then your work angle will take place in the center of the joint. (In MIG welding, steeper angles are possible than in stick welding.) As a rule of thumb, in stick welding arc length should match the diameter of the electrode metal. This is the relationship between the torch and line of travel. 7-16). google_ad_client = "pub-0048113051831248"; Size: The thickness of the base metal should factor into the decision about which diameter electrode, rod, wire or torch tip you use to make the weld, as well as your voltage, wirespeed and/or current settings. MIG or flux-cored welding), the wire electrode is held farther away from the joint than in stick welding. The travel angle is the angle of the wire as it travels along the weld path. As a student, it's easy to assume that once the metal heats up, everything falls together naturally and all the little rough spots will disappear like magic. The electrode angle consists of two positions: work angle and travel angle. Work angle. //-->, Welder Qualification Test Via Advice section, Open root v groove butt joint 3G vertical up. When it becomes necessary to reestablish the arc (as in a long weld that requires the use of more than one electrode), the crater must first be cleaned before striking the arc. This setting allows you to increase the current above the set output amperage if your arc starts to fizzle out. Although the photos above don't show it, too long of an arc can cause porosity (air bubbles) inside the weld, spatter on the base metal and undercutting at the toes of the joint. In other words, if you're using a 1/8 inch rod, hold it 1/8 inch from the joint surface. The work and travel angle is the angle you have the torch at in relation to the base metal (where you are going to weld). 2F is a fillet weld position, in which the welding is done on the upper side of the surfaces that is approximately horizontal that lies against a surface that is approximately vertical. The travel angle is the angle between a line perpendicular to the weld axis and the electrode. ------------------------------------------, Copyright © 2012-2015 TheCityEdition.com, Improving Your Stick Welding Technique MillerWelds.com, Open root v groove butt joint 3G vertical up video, Using CLAMS paramenters in Stick Welding A is for Angle of Electrode. Heat Dispersal: Different metals disperse heat differently. Speed - If you move too fast, the size of the weld will be small and achieve insufficient penetration. The word 'travel' describes the movement of your torch. The normal travel angle for all sorts of conditions and positions are from 5 to 15 degrees. Some welds are covered by specific codes that prohibit peening so you should check the weld specification before peening. Some stick machines also have a setting known as Dig. Stick and wire welding require different angles. What gun travel angle is recommended for GMAW-P aluminum? When learning any new process you'll likely start off doing things wrong. Work angle is “the relationship between the axis of the electrode to the welders work piece.” Travel angle refers to employing either a push angle (pointing in the direction of travel) or a drag angle, when the electrode is pointed opposite of travel. The travel angle shown is … With stick welding, maintain a 20° to 30° lead angle in the dragging direction. Length of Arc - How close to the work plates the welder holds the arc of a wire or welding electrode can affect the amount of current and heat going into the joint. At slower travel speeds, the arc is directly above the center of the molten weld pool. so does a slight push angle of up to about 10 degrees. The tip should form an angle of approximately 45 degrees with the plate surface. Normally, when the travel speed is too fast, the molten pool cools too quickly, locking in impurities and causing the weld bead to be narrow with pointed ripples, as shown in figure 7-12, view D. On the other hand, if the travel speed is too slow, the metal deposit piles up excessively and the weld is high and wide, as shown in figure 7-12, view E. In most cases, the limiting factor is the highest speed that produces a satisfactory surface appearance of a normal weld, as shown in figure 7-12, view A. It comes down to machine settings, electrode angle and travel speed. There are plenty of other size factors to consider, but metal thickness usually comes first. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) – commonly known as ‘stick welding’ – is one of the most widely used welding processes for joining metal. The work angle is the position of the gun relative to the welding joint’s angle. This gives the welder a better view of what's going on in the puddle. Here's the list: Current - Amperage generally dictates the size and penetration of a weld bead when you're moving your torch at the right speed. What is the travel angle? Arc welding students remember most of them by reciting the acronym "CLAMS", since each letter stands for a welding parameter. Angle the gun in the same direction as which you are pushing the weld. Direct current reverse polarity c. Direct current straight polarity d. Direct current electrode negative Two inert gases used in GMAW are . Push c. Drag d. This depends upon the welding position. The welding process is described as MAG welding with metal cored electrode and is marked as 138 according the ISO standards. This procedure fills the crater and prevents porosity and slag inclusions. A grinder also removes cracks on the surface. a. Strike the tip of the new electrode at the forward (cold) end of the crater and establish an arc. For stick welding, you have to drag the weld. Ideally, you'll hold your torch perpendicular, or 90 degrees, to the joint. a. The major cause of undercuts in welding is when the operator (welder) uses a high welding current or welds with fast travel speed. Quenching plates after welding (to cool them down) is a practice that's generally frowned upon after the first semester of welding school. The following chart shows how some CLAMS variables impact a weld bead: In the last two examples, "WFS" stands for wirefeed speed, which is how MIG and flux cored welding machines regulate current. The most commonly used method to break the arc is to hold the electrode stationary until the crater is filled and then slowly withdraw the electrode. This position permits uniform preheating of the plate edges immediately ahead of the molten puddle. In stick welding, the welder sets the voltage directly but not the current, so the machines are referred to as Constant Current (CC). A typical pipe butt weld set-up would be 60° included angle, 1mm to 2mm root gap and a zero to 1.5mm thick root face. The second angle used in welding is the travel angle. In this position, the torch is usually held at a 45-degree angle. google_ad_slot = "6853920422"; That's because the arc is more concentrated, and thus capable of burning through metal. downhill mig can be effective for up to 1/4" thick if done right, but there are no guarantees. This method reduces the possibilities of crater cracks. Needless to say, the angle of your beveled sides should be appropriate for the thickness of the metal and the welding process being used. A metallurgy class teaches welders the many forms of heat treatment and their advantages - like hardening, tempering and annealing. Technically it is the angle your electrode takes (or the centerline of your torch/gun) in reference to the line which is at a right angle to the welds axis and the weld axis plane. The angle of the tip and the travel speed while welding can alter the weld depth. Travel angles beyond 20 to 25 degrees can lead to more spatter, less penetration and general arc instability. For this reason, students also learn the difference between Electrode StickOut (the wire length from the contact tip) and Contact-To-Work-Distance . Your joints, beveled edges, grinded root faces and surfaces should fit together in a smooth and uniform manner before you start the weld. This angle can also be used to partially define the position of guns, torches, rods, and beams. (AWS Welding … The image below shows you the travel angle. Peening is a procedure that involves lightly hammering a weld as it cools. Travel angle is the angle in the direction of welding and may vary from 5 to 30 degrees, depending on the welder's choice and conditions (fig. Travel Angle – The angle less than 90 degrees between the electrode axis and a line perpendicular to the weld axis, in a plane determined by the electrode axis and the weld axis. The principle of metal cored wire welding is given in the picture below. Variations in the ESO or CTWD affect the amount of the current going into the joint, regardless of the wirespeed setting on the machine. Sometimes even 90 degrees straight in. What polarity does GMAW-P require? As for the face of the weld, it should lie in an approximately vertical plane. For most wire welding applications, this angle is 15 to 30 degrees. When wire welding (MIG or flux-core), the ridge should be approximately ⅜ inch behind the wire electrode, Hoes … As the angle between the electrode and the plate determines the point of impingement and direction of the arc force, it has a critical effect on the weld bead profile and depth of penetration. The more the travel angle, the welds result in more spatter, less penetration, and the instability of the arc. As described in Types of Beads, a weave, whip, drag or push motion are all examples of manipulation. This condition leads to weld embrittlement and early failure. The flame is pointed in the direction of welding and directed between the rod and the molten puddle. The big exception to the rule is T-joints, where the work angle varies between 30 to 50 degrees. Normally, a small variance of the work angle will not affect the appearance or quality of a weld; however, when undercuts occur in the vertical section of a fillet weld, the angle of the arc should be lowered and the electrode directed more toward the vertical section. Angle - There are two torch angles to remember when welding. Work angle is especially important in multiple-pass fillet welding. You can increase the length of the arc to reduce heat to the puddle or to limit the deposition of weld metal. Producing a weld bead that's the right size, shape and depth involves many variables. If a large drag angle is utilized, air may be drawn into the shielding gas and contaminate the weld. For wire welding, Hoes and Liesner recommend holding the gun at a 10 to 15-degree angle. Reduce your travel speed so the weld metal completely fills the melted-out areas of the base metal. Move too slow and you'll end up with a fat weld bead and likely too much heat going into your work plates. Arc welding faults. For a 2F horizontal Tee, I used a slight drag pull angle of around 5-10 degrees. The first is the work angle, which is the relationship between the joint and the torch (or rod). A standard traveling angle should be between 5 – 15 degrees. Manipulation - This refers to the movement of the welder's hand as he or she guides the electrode along the joint. The types of welds, joints, and welding positions used in manual-shielded metal arc welding are very similar to those used in oxygas welding. A steady motion is the most basic technique and requires the MIG welder be set exactly as needed. So voltage determines the overall profile, or geometry, of the weld. Speed: Watch the welding puddles and ridge (where the molten metal solidifies). When you are push welding you are forehand welding. The mass of your work pieces also has an effect, with tinier work pieces heating up much faster than large, heavy pieces.. Low-carbon steel can be very forgiving when overheated, but other metals may lose their tensile strength or other qualities if you don't monitor the heat going in and out of the plates or pipe. 7-16). google_ad_height = 600; /* 120x600, created 3/17/09 */ TheFabricator.com,