Yet this is not true if the stone were to be a watch." In its strongest form, it argues that individuals only ever act in their own self-interest. Telos is a Greek word meaning "end" or "goal"; thus, teleological ethics is concerned with how choices will affect a particular desired moral outcome. Save Save Teleological and Deontological Ethical Theories For Later. Consequentialist ethics come from the teleologicalbranch of ethical theory. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Teleological ethics, (teleological from Greek telos, “end”; logos, “science”), theory of morality that derives duty or moral obligation from what is good or desirable as an end to be achieved. A mere 20 species provide about 90% of the world population's food. Of more interest is another consequentialist theory: that of utilitarianism. The theory of egoism is at the heart of capitalist arguments that a corporation's sole responsibility is to its shareholders. Teleological and Deontological Ethical Theories Copy - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Types of Teleological Ethical Theories. It is therefore morally right to pursue one's own self-interest. This article is about the philosophical problem of intentionality. Updates? Modern ethics, especially since the 18th-century German deontological philosophy of Immanuel Kant, has been deeply divided between a form of teleological ethics (utilitarianism) and deontological theories. See also Kurt Baier, "Ethics: Deontological Theories," and "Ethics: Teleological Theories," Encyclopedia of Bioethics, ed. Teleological ethics is a theory according to which the rightness of an act is determined by its outcome. Ordinarily our moral reasoning is teleological, but some are non-teleological.2. 3 Five Types of Ethical Theory (3rded. Virtue ethics shifts the analytical emphasis away from rule-based decision-making (of deontological ethics) or of the consequences of an action (eg in utilitarianism) towards the ethics of individuals and the ethics of human character. Teleological Theory •“Telos” meaning end or goal •Focuses on end result Module 2 Theories and Principles Deontological or Teleological • I am very concerned about the outcome of a decision but less inclined to follow the rules if I am not happy with the outcome. If everyone acts in their own self-interest, then society will become more efficient, which will be in everyone's interest. They agree to much of our moral reasoning2. Bundle. Living beings are said to have an intrinsic moral value because each has a good of its own, derived from the fact that living things are goal-directed (teleological) beings. -- Created using Powtoon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. Utilitarianism, in answering this charge, must show either that what is apparently immoral is not really so or that, if it really is so, then closer examination of the consequences will bring this fact to light. What are some of the key differences between consequentialist and deontological ethics? All final causes have an ultimate final cause which is God. Examples of these approaches are functionalism (Merton 1968), decision making (March and … The text in 2.3.1 is taken from a webpage entitled 'Ten Reasons to Save the Diversity of Life' [biodiversity]. Such receptivity may be limited to specific fields of innovation—for example, improvements in weapons or in navigational techniques—or it may take the form of…, Normative strain arises when changing conditions create a situation in which the established norms no longer lead to the attainment of important, accepted values. PowerPoint: The Teleological Argument. Even where they appear to be acting in others' interests, descriptive egoism explains that the person is really motivated by their own self-interest disguised by arguments (rationalisations) of 'doing one's duty' or 'helping others'. In assessing the total happiness caused to a number of people, equal amounts of happiness are to have equal value, no one person's happiness having greater value that another's. For example, when a teleological system declares that choices are moral if they enhance human happiness, it isn't argued that "human happiness" is intrinsically moral itself. '[I]t is possible to see the ethical validity or correctness of an action in terms of conformity to certain types of conduct. For example, a wild relative of corn called milpilla (Zea diploperennis) is exceptionally disease-resistant and is the only perennial in the corn family. If successfully interbred with domestic corn, its genes could boost corn production by billions of dollars. See also Kurt Baier, "Ethics: Deontological Theories," and "Ethics: Teleological Theories," Encyclopedia of Bioethics, ed. Download. 2.3 Teleological ethics 26 2.4 Limitations of traditional normative theories 29 Section 2 Self Assessment Questions 30 3.0 Key ethical issues: whose arguments count? In contrast, egoism as a normative argument tells us that we should be acting in our own interests, as this is the only way that overall welfare can be improved. MORAL INQUIRY Ronald F. White, Ph.D. Neo-Darwinian selection theory can be used to solve the problem. Professor of Philosophy College of Mount St. Joseph This book is a work in progress that is offered for free to anyone Teleological ethics (also known as consequentialism), from the Greek word telos meaning goal, claims that the “rightness or wrongness of an act is exclusively a function of the goodness or badness of the consequences of that act” (1). The judgement of r… Students can go through this at home to begin understanding the theory or teachers can use this in class as a recap lesson. Theory 1Teleological Theories. Corrections? There are at least three different ways in which the theory of egoism can be presented. Deontological ethics hold that that action itself is right or wrong, regardless of the outcome. The Teleological Argument Group 1 Identify the basic components of Teleological Argument and recall the premises and conclusion of Aquinas’ 5th Way. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. It is contrasted with altruism, which is not strictly self-interested, but includes in its goal the interests of others as well. Eudaemonist theories (Greek eudaimonia, “happiness”), which hold that ethics consists in some function or activity appropriate to man as a human being, tend to emphasize the cultivation of virtue or excellence in the agent as the end of all action. In fact, our motivation behind doing 'good deeds' may be to make ourselves feel good; to make ourselves look good in the eyes of others; or because we believe that, by helping others, others will help us. Also known as consequentialist ethics, it is opposed to deontological ethics (from the Greek deon, “duty”), which holds that the basic standards for an action’s being morally right are independent of the good or evil generated. Conversely, if the outcome causes harm, then the action is held to be morally wrong. The Analogical Teleological Argument of Paley: "If I stumbled on a stone and asked how it came to be there, it would be difficult to show that the answer, it has lain there forever is absurd. Teleological moral systems are characterized primarily by a focus on the consequences which any action might have (for that reason, they are often referred to as consequentialist moral systems, and both terms are used here). Teleology and Ethics - Consequences of Your Choices . One implication of utilitarianism is that one’s intention in performing an act may include all of its foreseen consequences. The problem arises in these theories because they tend to separate the achieved ends from the action by which these ends were produced. 1. Strain in values arises when the values themselves seem to interfere with the satisfaction of important needs of a segment of…, …perspective relies on a problematic teleological hypothesis. These terms are explained in 2.3.2. ;New York: Harcourt , Brace 1944) esp. PowerPoint: Introducing The Design Argument from Peped. Rather than maximise individual welfare, utilitarianism focuses on collective welfare and it identifies goodness with the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people: the 'greatest happiness principle'. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. While it is an important theory for understanding economic rationality, we do not consider egoism in great depth here. Teleological and … It outlines the basics of the Teleological Argument that you need to know for the new 2017 AQA Religious Studies specification. Egoism is a teleological theory of ethics that sets as its goal the benefit, pleasure, or greatest good of oneself alone. Another branch of the teleological strand of ethics is that of 'being good'. Powerpoint: Teleological Design Argument (GW) by admin2015. The judgement of right or wrong depends on the consequences of the decision or action. This powerpoint briefly details the essentials of the Teleological Argument in a 16 slide presentation. PowerPoint: The Teleological Argument. All major food crops, including corn, wheat, and soybeans, depend on the introduction of new strains from the wild to cope with evolving disease and pests. You will remember that teleological theories focus on the goal of the ethical action. !robIems with the %eIeoIoicaI / !robIems with the %eIeoIoicaI / Deo3toIoicaI CIassificatio3 Deo3toIoicaI CIassificatio3. Smith argued that if everyone followed their self-interest, then society as a whole would be improved. The concept of trade-offs is specifically embraced and social and environmental cost-benefit analyses are explicit utilitarian tools for assessing the goodness of an action. Bundle. A purpose that is imposed by a human use, such as that of a fork, is called extrinsic. One of the most famous normative egoists was Adam Smith, one of the pioneers of neo-classical economic theory. What are the main arguments given here? Unformatted text preview: Chapter Seven: Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a universal teleological system It calls for the maximization of goodness in society - that is, the greatest amount of goodness for the greatest number of peopleand not merely the good of the agent Two Types of Ethical Systems Deontology: From the Greek word deon meaning “duty” and logos meaning “logic”. Report a problem. Every action has an end or a purpose (final cause). Consequentialist theories are those that base moral judgements on the outcomes of a decision or an action. The argument is about the use-value of biodiversity to humans and about the consequences of saving - or of not saving - species from extinction. You will remember that teleological theories focus on the goal of the ethical action. We have an obligation to keep our promise. Consequentialist theories are those that base moral judgements on the outcomes of a decision or an action. What kind of ethical reasoning is being used? Pickersgill, 1829; in the National Portrait Gallery, London. Goodness of consequences can be measured and compared.Weaknesses1. The-Teleological-Argument. Teleology (from τέλος, telos, 'end', 'aim', or 'goal,' and λόγος, logos, 'explanation' or 'reason') or finality is a reason or explanation for something as a function of its end, purpose, or goal. This [...] pattern of ethical evaluation lends itself particularly to expressions of ethical judgement that emphasize the character of the actor, so that not only is the act virtuous, but also the person who reliably acts in virtuous ways.'. In order to make correct moral choices, you have to have some understanding of what will result from your choices. Teleological Design Argument. The two main consequentialist theories considered here are egoism and utilitarianism. 3 Five Types of Ethical Theory (3rded. Baier notes that the word "deontology" was coined by the utilitarian JeremyBentha mto denote Theories of Organizational Changes 14 The teleological Theory: It talks about the organization’s interaction with the external and internal construct and its efforts to reach to the defined goals. Download as PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. So maximising benefits for the greatest number of people involves net assessments of benefit: utility is the net result of benefits and 'disbenefits' - or costs. Unformatted text preview: Chapter Seven: Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a universal teleological system It calls for the maximization of goodness in society - that is, the greatest amount of goodness for the greatest number of peopleand not merely the good of the agent Two Types of Ethical Systems Deontology: From the Greek word deon meaning “duty” and logos meaning “logic”. Presentations on A Level Religious Studies (Christianity)A. ;New York: Harcourt , Brace 1944) esp. The most well-known of these ethical theories is virtue ethics. The argument given to preserve biodiversity is that to do so can have benefits to human survival and economic prosperity. From the first category we enumerate the Aristotelian perspective or the one developed by J. St. Mill, while the Kantian perspective is exemplary for deontological ethics. Even if we donate money to charity anonymously, we may still only really do this because it makes us feel good about ourselves. Consequentialist ethics come from the teleological branch of ethical theory. teleological theories (NOTE: You must read only those linked materials that are preceded by the capitalized word READ .) Hedonism, for example, teaches that this feeling is pleasure—either one’s own, as in egoism (the 17th-century English philosopher Thomas Hobbes), or everyone’s, as in universalistic hedonism, or utilitarianism (the 19th-century English philosophers Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, and Henry Sidgwick), with its formula the “greatest happiness [pleasure] of the greatest number.” Other teleological or utilitarian-type views include the claims that the end of action is survival and growth, as in evolutionary ethics (the 19th-century English philosopher Herbert Spencer); the experience of power, as in despotism (the 16th-century Italian political philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli and the 19th-century German Friedrich Nietzsche); satisfaction and adjustment, as in pragmatism (20th-century American philosophers Ralph Barton Perry and John Dewey); and freedom, as in existentialism (the 20th-century French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre). Jeremy Bentham, detail of an oil painting by H.W. Uploaded by The goodness of the intention then reflects the balance of the good and evil of these consequences, with no limits imposed upon it by the nature of the act itself—even if it be, say, the breaking of a promise or the execution of an innocent man. The opposite of virtues are vices. W. T. Reich (New York: Free Press, 1978) 412-21. Egoism as a descriptive argument describes human nature as self-centred. Omissions? According to the teleological perspective, a form of human behavior is described as moral or non-moral according to the goals explicitly set. Click on number to view slide. It is worth distinguishing between egoism as a descriptive argument (an argument that tells us how the world actually is) and egoism as a normative argument (an argument that tells us how the world ought to be). It is an argument in natural theology.. 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