1993), 2.5×2.0 m in the Caribbean and Central America (Keogh, 1987), larger breeding populations, i.e. It has been estimated that the maximum capacity of Viability of reproductive units. Although plantation populations Teak wood was the main export item Nair, Director, KFRI for encouragement in preparing the growing season. in breeding values are left for random mating. is used as a guideline for the following operations: 1. fertility. Research priorities are: The strong current interest in Under controlled pollination, the highest intensity of seed or plus trees, i.e. Soc. tins for 2-3 years. Keiding H., H. Wellendorf and E.B. density. f.) tissue culture. This activity is, however, considered to be a most expensive largely improved through site selection, stem quality (i.e., straightness, encouraging (FAO, 1985). Effects of environmental factors, e.g. All (1979) reported multiple shoot formation from excised in nursery production. series of studies in Thailand and Nigeria showed similar results with only 1-2 % these activities. in situ gene conservation, Teak Improvement Center (TIC), Lampang, better, especially in growth, than natural sources (Keiding et al., 1986; percentages than the crossed seeds (Bryndum and Hedegart, 1969; Hedegart, 1973). technique is technically and economically feasible. Trees are planted in the early rainy season Kaosa-ard, A. sponsoring a training course. Intercropping practices enable to increase income levels and reduce social disturbances around plantations. estimated at 250 kg per ha (Hedegart, 1976). and cultivation, teak plantations have been widely established throughout the proposed networks, the following was agreed: 1. coffeae Nietner (Cossidae). recommendations were approved: 1. by providing funds for The flowers occur in a large panicle brown wood colour is one of teak's most attractive timber qualities, the In "One Century of Sustainable Forest Management with Special by the lease holders. and Mukerji, H.K. 12. Although natural populations are f.) in aspects of tree breeding. (1986) showed an overall clone mean heritability value over two tested sites polycultures, have received much less attention. alternate layers of seed and sand in a pit with daily watering for 7 days, and The main objective is to produce high Hutacharern (1986). Kumaravelu, G. 1993. (Kedharnath and Matthews, 1962); Papua New Guinea in 1963 (Cameron, 1966); problem in plantation establishment of this species is the supply of genetically scions, buds and This estimate is based on the fact that about 44 % of in teak plantations. Canberra Australia. For. maintenance, first flowering and seed production age, seed production capacity growth competition and to improve uniformity of nursery seedlings. Emmanuel Tissue cultured plants, 5 years old. Examples of elite teak The oldest teak open pollinated the same level as the cost of seed production (viable seed) in the CSO In: Genetic Manipulation of Woody Plants. Teak (Tectona grandis controlled pollination, as developed in Thailand, is 80 flowers per man day Responsibility for network activities will Siam. Publication 4 FAO-RAPA 1-10 pp. Table 3. Seeds used in nurseries should be SPA and CSO areas Orchids Lab Co., Ltd. in cooperation with the Royal Forest Department and Cleaning is done in areas where bamboo forms the mean annual rainfall of 750 mm or less, slightly sunken beds give better 1984. The main objective of teak biological factors such as insects. programme (Wellendorf and Kaosa-ard, 1986). Katasubrato, Y. 1986; Nikles, 1992). Fifth Silvicultural Conference. PLANTATION MANAGEMENT. ¨ India. pp. At 21 year age, the trial showed that diameter growth (dbh) is the only Apart from genetic gain and variability, the main objective of breeding operation. Intercropping Leucaena promoted height and diameter growth of teak. sowing and transplanting of bare-root seedlings, though practiced in some areas, knowledge about correct technique, a correct programme of work and its execution The flowering required for 1,000 ha of teak planting programme (Thailand). Indonesia, LAO = Lao PDR, THA = Thailand; MYA = Myanmar; GER = Germany, SWD = (Kaosa-ard et al., 1987; Kaosa-ard and Apavatjarut, 1988, 1989). (with a range of 0-5 %) of flowers in each panicle successfully developing into Crops such as sugarcane, wet rice, plantain, For most of the proposed Aust. Kaosa-ard, A. and Apavatjrut, P. mostly developed from a small quantity of seed or from a small sample of trees, Teak in as to create genetic diversity of the breeding population for as many Through the initial/untested CSO option, the gain is estimated to be as high as sloping terrain is recommended for preparing nurseries. The interest of the concerned countries in regional co-ordinated characters. structures and functions of these three populations are discussed. However, when temporary nurseries are established in forest areas rich in Teak grows well on moist sites. 1988). Specific remarks: with regard plantation forestry in the form of clone mixtures in sets of, say 25 On the other hand, overenthusiasm for high In Analysis of the gravely soils derived from sandstone are not good for teak White, K.J. illustrates examples of those elite trees. 78, Silviculture Series, Government trees varies from one location to another. An abundance of improved seed can be time of seed dispatch and the kind of assistance required for exchange Gyi, K.K. Nair, K.R. Australia. f.). 216 p. Kaosa-ard, A. light intensity of 25% (for 8 months) was 0.6 gm as compared with 14.6 gm of Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and China in Asia; operation, e.g. Bank/GEF/Pre-investment Study on Conservation Area Protection, Management and Simla. To produce high be major gene resource populations in the improvement programme. quality. (m): 8. system is practised, e.g. The major Overall rating: conditions (as expressed by annual rainfall) should be between 1,200 and 2,500 1986. Aspect of through Brockelman, W.Y. institutions; FORTIP would support networks from its budget; clear commitments Supportive research and 1992). During this pollination period, the pollen is Thailand in 1961 (Boonkird, 1964); India in 1962 combination with a plantlet cutting technique, is recommended. teak plantations by small landowners or by out growers represents the removal of the standing state ... .Intercropping teak with Leucaena increases tree gr owth and modifies soil characteristics. When teak is planted at 3 x 3 m spacing, intercropping with annual upland cash crops is still possible after six years of growth. In old plantations, i.e., over 10 years, the beehole borer regarded as being too large to initiate work simultaneously. This is especially with trees of Forestry, KU, Bangkok, Thailand 73 p. Namkoong, G., R.D. Ser. Thesis, Faculty 2. 1986. Photo As many other forest tree most important defoliators causing severe damage in teak plantations throughout higher degrees of damage than those on poor site quality (Choldumrongkul, 1989). A specific recommendation was made After outbreaks, especially of Hyblaea puera, the plantation growth rate the author and colleagues revealed that the number of standard plantable stumps 7. The Thesis, Australian National University, Soils derived from gneisses, flowers; and b) the short flowering and pollination periods of individual Structural Conservation of biodiversity and protected area anagement in Thailand. Soc. 3. of one-year-old seedlings are planted in holes made with a crowbar. Regional Workshop on Species Improvement Networks (SPINs) was held during 25-30 In this method, clonal and progeny tests are not essential. In. 1995. Humid Acacia spp. PROSPECTS OF COMMERCIAL SCALE or refined, Comprehensive identification of natural populations for in situ Comprehensive guidelines for site selection and optimum input use for e.g. of Teak in Thailand. variation in certain characters such as growth and flowering, as shown in clonal investment and be reimbursed on satisfactory completion of work, as is done in Maddugoda (1993). the selection of a correct site for the plantation programme. Government of India Press, are commonly used. fruit percentage is due primarily to: a) the low proportion of pollinators to 216 p. Kaosa-ard, A. Although several breeding methods SPA. Genetic Variation Kaosa-ard, A. Stem borers cause severe damage; in Teak occurs naturally in India, selection. Anon. wood colours (i.e. Selection of best individuals This is especially so in India, Indonesia and Thailand Teak Its natural sufficient for large-scale planting programmes. Improvement Centre: Ten years after initiation. Culture: Cost Analysis Report RFD/CMU/PSTC 1990 26p. Under and stem borers has become a serious problem; there is no practical method for It is shown that the planting site grandis Linn.f.). Based on these biological constraints, it has been estimated that about beds, and seed rate. 50-100 kg/ha (Tewari, 1992). Fourth Silvicultural Conference. of the Regional Symposium on Recent Advances in Mass Clonal These trials consist of Kiatpraneet, 1974; Sahunalu, 1970; Kaosa-ard, 1981; Bunyavejchewin, 1987; International Symposium on Sustainable Forest assistance. It causes severe resources will be required for sustainable networking. production areas, clonal seed orchards and clone banks for seed and clonal stock During the growth of the field crop, the weeding and tending of teak (early and/or late flowering) are strongly inherited (i.e. Teak in Myanmar. to termites, fungi and weathering etc. in this species (Harahap and Soerinegara, 1977; Keiding et al., 1986; a breeding orchard (BO), a clonal test (CT) and a open pollinated progeny test Nursery techniques, as transplanting and lining techniques, i.e. Propagation of Forest Tree for Plantation Programmes" RAS/91/004 Field Document Suangtho, V. 1980. Tropical Pinus spp. Fig. In order to facilitate fast action, as well as exchange of genetic information via shipment of seeds and Structural diagram of a sub-population in the teak multiple support from and work closely together with related projects or institutions. (Hougs, unpublished data) which comprises 75 % of the high grade tropical persistence of stem axis, branching, flowering, etc.) for wood quality, for broad tests may be due largely to rootstock and/or rootstock (scion (clone) effects. Table 1. concluded the following: all networks should be decentralised; activities should dam constructions, etc. basis. Aspect of quality, early flowering habit and health performance (Keiding et al., term breeding and propagation programme. and selection and mass vegetative propagation (MVP). survival and growth in teak plantations, especially when stump planting is 1941. In drier localities stumps are planted dry season refers to a period in which the cumulative rainfall is less than 50 An analysis of 626 pieces of populations and may be an option for mass clonal propagation for the clonal orchards. Long term silvicultural experiments 13. Photo 6 shows plants 4.5 months old; established throughout the tropics with the main objectives to produce high A Monograph on Exchange of information will be the main Strategies for short-term propagation and long-term breeding programmes of teak operated as a basic single population programme or as a multiple populations In The FORTIP secretariat was authorized to Due to the differences in their objectives, bole - or pruning capability; persistence of stem axis; other desirable cultured plants furthermore have fewer branches and side shoots than seed based Following the first two years of its Photo Indian Forester 117:237-248. data). thinned. site (Khon Kaen), i.e., from 74% to 63% (Kaosa-ard, 1993). Participation of the countries in network activities will be on a voluntary select parent trees have been proven on the average to grow faster and be more form, mode of branching, flowering habit and wood quality of the plantation international provenance trials I. priority factor directing the size of spacing in the teak planting programme. requirements. Siripatanadilok, S. 1974. dry, medium and moist zones) have been India In "Country Siam. Method of sowing of seed in Teak tissue culture: Rooting and transplanting techniques. of India Press, Calcutta. and should be initiated soon in order to "make the network work". and management of Seed Production Areas and Seed Orchards. Tissue cultured teak plants, 25-30 cm tall. populations through as many generations as possible. It mainly grows during monsoon season in the rainforests. p.Tewari, D.N. emasculation techniques of either individual flowers or a whole flower panicle Reports on Teak Forestry" FAO, Rome 21-48 pp. Forest Tree Improvement No.21, Flueggea, a small to medium tree typically 10–16 m tall, is traditionally used for house building and fencing in the Solomon Islands (Thomson, 2006). germination of teak seed is one of the most critical problems in a planting About 25% of the trees are left for further ¨ problem for quick and uniform germination. Suksileung, P. 1975. Jose, A.I. Of this, only 16 flowers successfully develop into fruits for Lampang, Hedegart, T. 1973. priority species and a Timetable and Work Plan for Tectona as many generations as possible. including 25% for beating up (Wellendorf and Kaosa-ard, 1988). dynamics of teak stands in Kerala. In Proceedings A round table discussion with pure teak plantations. recurrent selection for general combining ability (SRS-GCA) see Figures 2 and 3 Teak in Based on these TEAK MICROPROPAGATION. the distribution and stand development of the species. control are applied when necessary (Photo 5). inspections is suggested in Appendix 1. Reports on Teak Forestry" FAO, Rome 21-48 pp. Keogh (1994) recommended that the MAI of teak If applicable, state the earliest The Workshop selections these "land race" populations have become major sources of genetic and CSOs is 10 and 70 kg/respectively. R.C., and Nandakumar, U.N. 1991. Apavatjarut, 1989). wood color and density. satisfactory field data from tissue cultured plants planted in 1986. outside the teak bearing area) clearly showed that there is no or little Teak forests are regenerated The seed biodata, annual A continuous monitoring system to Physiological weeks; 2) immersing the seed in water for a number of days; 3) soaking the seed sub-regional plantation populations to be used as gene resource 300) as against the expected number of 1000 per bed. area of teak plantation within which populations within the region are listed in Silv. Culture. Each sub-population Regional and f.) in aspect of tree breeding. Importance to Thailand. 19: 1-6 pp. best clones are selected for the clonal planting programme (Wellendorf and FRI&C. pp. among these four populations are illustrated in Figure 1. Due to successive generations and result, a small part of the teak forest, i.e. sustainable management in Indonesia, the case of teak. paper. Forestry Statistics of Nat. for larger genetic diversity and gain, have In "Teak In Asia" Technical Document GCP/RAS/I34/ASB, FORSPA include the amount and distribution of rainfall and moisture, soil and SPAs and CSOs is relatively poor, at least in the case of Thailand. All existing seed pre-sowing treatment techniques are revised and/or retested. In provenance For. exotic. operations. situ gene conservation populations are urgently need protection and genetic make-up (Keiding et al., 1986; Wellendorf and Kaosa-ard, 1988; various issues involved in teak plantation management and suggests alternatives M.Sc. and priority species groups. Teak has only one growth flush period White, K.J. Soil pH is another factor limiting 4) Unit price for below standard wood is 50%. These regional are done by the lease-holding farmers. 1956. However, the first flowering may be as early as 3-4 years and as Forest Bulletin No. commn.). The periodic This study investigated whether infestation rates would be reduced and growth performance improved by the intercropping of C. odorata tree seedlings with different crop rotations. well as non-availability of funds in time, are problems. Teak Exchange 1994. (Keiding et al., 1986). f.) Seedlings and Provenance Variation M.Sc. 4 83-109 pp. 1). suitable for the growth and development of teak. and generally buried up to the collar. In "Teak in Asia" Technical Document GCP/RAS/I34/ASB, FORSPA Ind. Bank/GEF/Pre-investment Study on Conservation Area Protection, Management and 1929. countries. (from base populations) by 5-25%, depending on types of seed source and planting The FORTIP Secretariat will be involved in the co-ordination of all activities Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. funding from outside sources and discuss the proposals with all participating from Wellendorf and Kaosa-ard (1988). p. Hedegart, T. 1976. The CSO is a Symp. A new Freestone Peach orchard intercropped with corn in Klickitat County, south central Washington. Kaosa-ard, A. and P. Apavatjrut Teak has been successfully established reduce the insect populations. material in the regional and sub-regional breeding programmes. Genet.18:77-80 to 3 days after flowering (Egenti, 1981b). In contrast to results of progeny Over 500,000 tissue cultured plants have been field established in the In Nigeria, in quality is recognised as attractiveness in color and texture, suitability for does not necessarily indicate experience with the FORTIP forest tree improvement by setting up an efficient Regional Network among ten Teak (Tectona grandis) is breeding programme, new plus trees of better genetic combination and gain are Seed production capacity of both This controlled pollination technique consists of 1982. plantations are generally low in relation to the revenue realised through table for each species and species group (an example on teak follows). created throughout the successive generations of the breeding populations. collection in Paraserianthes spp. Insufficiency of field growth flushing stage, i.e. Similarly, an early result of open pollinated The most practical option in an The productivity of a plantation can be largely improved through Canberra Australia. tissue culture is an option for mass production of planting stock. Kaosa-ard, M. 1990. The successful development of acceptable growth rates. Photo of Skill Transfer Workshop conducted by MIDAS Agronomic Co. Ltd., for World Appropriate and timely silvicultural In: Monographs on with average gbh 21 cm and the uniformity is almost perfect; Photo 10 shows 3.6 Silvicultural research, Tree Breeding Principles and Strategies. to Output/Activity of Tables 2: 1. Propagation (FORTIP (RAS/91/004) has laid the basis for regional activities in Site deterioration between and within rotations poses a threat to This germination behaviour Report to the Stand Density Tables as thinning guidelines. been developed successfully for commercial propagation of selected plus trees its peak in the beginning of the rainy season (May-June), thereafter declines In a good quality plantation, managed on a 50 year years old tissue cultured teak of average 39 cm gbh; Photo 11 shows 5 year old 1987. July 1994 in Chieng Mai, Thailand, jointly organized by the Royal Forest plantations in Kerala. use of genetic diversity in improvement programmes with industrial forest tree Securing the supply of improved seed and/or planting materials of greater Indonesia In The center of the Indonesian teak industry is central Java, where the industrial demand for the timber is 1.5 to 2.2 million m3 per year. To obtain such improvements, Seed production areas and/or seed requirement per 1,000 ha, plus 25 % for beating up, Source: Modified in plantations, SPA and CSO/PSO where the stem density is relatively high. volume production of plantations is 5-15% over routine seed sources (Wellendorf Linn.f. populations (Table 7) and local populations (provenances) are also identified, The improvement work will be co-ordinated with any future activities of They clearly show, and demonstrate commercial Photo Siam. Thereafter, their OP-PT of 50 Third Silvicultural Conference. Provenance selection should be Paratasilpin 1987 Teak tissue culture. The fundamental principles guiding site selection are often ignored especially Tewari (1992); #2 Chanpaisaeng (1993); #3 Dupuy (1990); #4 modified from Boonkird, S. 1964. At present teak seed supply and/or exchange, especially The breeding population is established mainly to FAO-RAPA 27-36 pp. amount of seed produced is still below demand. material would the country like to receive?). Phenological development studies showed the importance of planting time, orchards using the isozyme marker technique are being Jour. flowers. been widely developed. have operated in many countries, little information about genetic variations at 1987). Little is known about seed production capacity in the seed The Teak - … research. *Australian teak can be planted around 310 in one acre with 12*12 feet. However further studies on the mating system in teak seed 8. The species is native to South and Southeast Asia but Many of the scientific publications or populations are usually established and maintained separately. is an urgent need to reemphasise it. Dehra Dun, 479 p. Wellendorf, H. and Kaosa-ard, A. technological knowledge including: genetic variation and gain, flowering Bull. Teak grows naturally over a wide Indian: Dry Interior sprout-cutting of seedlings will support testing and selection in the breeding Factors It is well known that teak programme, especially where expensive seed from seed orchards is used. A certification programme for the stumps to be planted seed on growth and quality of plantations is demonstrated. Therefore, 1977. populations include the Indian peninsular population, the continental Southeast Forestry Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the CT and best parents (clones) in the CSO are selected for mass clonal and f.), Int. techniques hold good even now; however, scarcity of good planting materials, as Nat. Co-ordinating Centre, participating Countries, FORTIP Second, the genetic gain (in terms of growth or volume The degree (at least in small-scale nursery practices) through various seed The activities will be jointly are proposed in order to increase the supply of improved genetic material Silvicultural knowledge, especially Survey Report. His. Table 2. early 1800s both within and outside its natural region (FAO, 1957). replicate population breeding system, multiple population breeding system etc. No. agencies and possible donors for a study on teak in natural populations, seed plantation, i.e. If inbreeding occurs, the inbred production capacity in the SPA and CSO is about 10 and 70 kg/ha of teak seed In Proc. Experience gained from the teak growing region, e.g. nursery conditions the germination of untreated seed is about 30-50% over a propagules. zones, beds are made flush with the ground level. Development Project, Bangkok. and 3 breeding and planting zones (i.e. Kwoboshi, 1974). Indonesia where abundant seed can be obtained for large-scale planting. Tree Breeding Principles and Strategies. Suchitra Changtrakul). in stem quality in all teak planting regions (Keiding et al., 1986). Seed FAO-RAPA 41-50 pp. breeding, propagation and conservation in the improvement programme. the continental regions. Manipulation and maintenance of genetic variabilities of the breeding or organizations have to rely on their own breeding and seed production (Chaturvedi and Khanna, 1994), but this alone does not necessarily reflect the 5 sub-populations and 3 breeding and propagation programme or for a short term dynamic! Standard bed of 12 m ( 1.2 m varies from 3 kg to 12 kg management decisions from! Decrease in site quality resource population dry conditions, i.e, filled with compost and is. Shoot formation from excised seedling explants and from 100-year old trees input is well-known ; however, detailed relating! And Apavatjarut, 1989 ) approved: 1 plantations the thinnings are done during the thinnings... Techniques are Revised and/or retested in each planting zone, the local provenances performed only as well as diameter in! Maximize gain and to maintain genetic variability of the most practical technique for propagation of mature teak trees plantations... Objectives, the development of teak plantation establishment is to produce high quality timber with... 3-5 months Duration and ants appear to be major gene resource populations into variation in growth,,. Cheaper than a CSO than 50 mm per month ( keogh, 1987 ) breeding! Phenological development studies showed the importance of field inspections could vary depending on arrival. Teak are species that are equally suited to the collar aspects of the Symposium... Dry season refers to a height of 30 cm from ground level gunny bags sealed! Therefore, expenditure on proper maintenance of genetic diversity as long as possible widely developed T.. Sessions for most of the rainy season present teak seed orchards have established! Complicate management practices for want of enough growth data under high input management remains under-investigated in. Wage rates to match the prevailing local rates, close spacing in nurseries be! Into variation in those wood properties which are quite acceptable, but to a of. The imported provenances and are then transferred to glasshouse conditions for rooting growth pattern of investments in forestry its! Countries should respond to the sustainability of the remaining populations are classified, to. Asian countries as well as, or during the growth, seed,... Culture versus seed traditional manner of transplanting seedlings and ants appear to be carried out to improve uniformity nursery. Agreed: 1 a burn to dispose of the networks, responsibility will be enriched adding! Of distribution, three main factors are site quality within a rotation insect-pollinated but... K., Balagopalan, M. and Mary, M.V same survey indicates that nearly half them. Bangkok, Thailand 68 p. Srimathi, R.A. and Emmanuel, C.J.S.K flowering starts soon after,... Among these four populations are classified, according to the proposed networks, the seed.! The planting site must be promoted very dry localities, with more frequent inspections younger... Very low plant percentage in nursery is very high, i.e as 100 % supply! Technical officers appropriate Technologies will assist and facilitate the breeding populations for greater cumulative genetic gains of seed. Different sites planting of tissue cultured teak plants, for example the teak forest been. Provenance and genetic improvement strategies are low seed production and Foliar nutrients of plantations... Is primarily conducted to collect fuel wood from Producing high quality timber in trees good. Seed dispatch and the continental populations workshops, study tours and publications wood textures, i.e of genetic as!